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Given article was edited, changed and published in magazine " Beekeeping "  6,2001

Biological protection of bees from varroatosis (author's variant)

Whether it is necessary to speak, how many efforts and problems deliver to beekeeping varroatosis. It would seem, all of us know about mite, have developed many ways of struggle against it (him) and to speak about a full victory above mite to not have. Meanwhile, it seems to me rather strange circumstance, that this problem has arisen only last  30-40 years. Bees on an extent of all long evolution have adapted to many adverse factors. And that circumstance, that mite actively parasitizes on a bee in the last time, in my opinion is the certificate of that we have broken what that mechanisms of protection of bees from mite, last years.

It is authentically known, that in a range of temperatures from 30-37,5˚C development of bees is possible during all stage post embryonic development (E.K.Es'kov " Ecology of a melliferous bee " M. 1990.) With the minimal losses.  The optimum temperature for development of eggs mite at relative humidity of 60-80 % makes 34˚C ("Beekeeping" 8, 1983, I.A.Akimov, I.V.Piletskaja " About viability of eggs Varroa mite"). And at long influence of temperature 35-36˚C the destruction of eggs mite can achieve 50-95 % depending on relative humidity. The difference of temperatures in 1-2˚C with at the appropriate relative humidity is capable to be a real barrier for mite. But as mite successfully parasitizes on bees it means, that this difference of temperatures is not present.  Or, mite has adapted to temperature 35-36˚C, or in broodnest  the temperature makes parts 34˚C and relative humidity of 60-80 %.  The second circumstance is more plausible, that proves to be true publications. Such microclimate in broodnest  parts of a jack keeps, not because the beehive, that is why that at us such a beehive is badly warmed. Existing designs of beehives are adapted to beekeepers, than for bees more. Are guilty as also beekeepers who, press towards to not admit (allow) swarming of bees,  unduly expand volume of a beehive. Thus bees probably are not capable to provide optimum  a microclimate in beehive.

Naturally bees define  and form optimum volume and structure broodnest  in a jack, proceeding from own opportunities and, doing (making) it it is rational, thus the jack turns out very compact. The beekeeper, what skilled would not be, is not capable to support volume of a jack according to force of family and to carry out the given function better bees. And for bees it will be better, if the beekeeper will not be engaged at all in expansion of a jack, in that kind as it is done (made) now. But for this purpose bees would need create the perfect conditions approached to natural, in which of bee without assistance could to form volume and structure of a jack.

In article " Almost as in hollow " (4. 2000. "Beekeeping") author A.D.Trifonov has described an ideal way of the contents of bees in which bees without the help of the beekeeper form volume of a jack. At such way in a beehive always there should be free  bottom cases on which at "good to a bribe transition queen with retinue downwards occurs automatically".  At work with such beehives, the beekeeper does not have need constantly to watch closely development of bees and in time to expand a jack. The beekeeper beforehand can substitute the case completed with frameworks, not breaking a rhythm of work of bees. And bees pass  downwards gradually and only then when it is necessary for them and consequently the jack turns out compact. I want to stop those beekeepers who will want to repeat experience in the big scales in that kind as it is described in A.D.Trifonova's article. Seven years back I so were sure in success that did not begin to experiment on one colony, and has tried to make it with 15 colonies. All of them have come in swarm a condition.  The author of article " Almost as in hollow" nothing has specified about a design of a beehive, and at all has not given what hint that such design features and conditions are available.  And meanwhile, such conditions are available also them a little. Unfortunately, while now tell about all conditions I can not, but on one of a condition  I shall stop.

 Queen without special problems passes in the top case and extremely reluctantly, practically does not pass in the bottom case, owing to about which we can while only guess even if between cases  of a beehive the minimal backlash. And to provide transition queen in the bottom case in a multicase beehive, combs should be located a special way. A part comb in a beehive are displaced on a vertical in relation to a number (line) worth comb so, that a joint between frameworks are blocked combs the next frameworks.

At the maintenance of bees in beehives with such arrangement comb, the microclimate in a beehive will not correspond  to an optimum mode of development Varroa mite and as consequence  quantity mite it will be minimal. Working with such beehives, the beekeeper not only will relieve bees from Varroa mites , but also essentially will reduce risk  of swarming of bees since in existing receptions beekeeping one of principal causes of swarming is the carelessness or inexperience of the beekeeper, thus of cares at the beekeeper becomes smaller.

At present work on registration of author's applications for inventions is conducted. Though about final conclusions and results to speak early, but preliminary results testify to encouraging perspective direction. 

2001. Alexander Yerko

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